By Maria E. Sturm
On March 27, 2017 the EU Commission cleared the merger of two U.S. chemical companies – The Dow Chemical Company (Dow) and E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont) according to the EU Merger Regulation. The Commission opened the investigation already in August 2016. The reason for the merger being cleared only now, were strong concerns of the EU Commission, which is the highest antitrust regulating authority in the EU. The EU Commission has the competence and duty to control mergers that exceed the thresholds laid down in Article 1 of the Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004 on the control of concentrations between undertakings (EU Merger Regulation). The merger creates the largest crop protection and seed company in an already highly concentrated market. The field of business of Dow and DuPont is particularly sensitive, as farmers strongly depend on seeds and crop protection at affordable prices.
There were three main issues of concern: The EU Commission expected (1) higher prices, (2) less choice for consumers and (3) substantially less innovation.
Both companies operate in two areas: pesticides and petrochemical products.
Pesticides comprise herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. Due to the very high market share of Dow and DuPont, after their merger hardly any competitors would be left on the market. This development would most probably lead to higher prices and less choice for consumers. Furthermore, the merger would have detrimental effects on the innovation efforts in the pesticide branch. Globally, only five enterprises (BASF, Bayer, Syngenta, Dow and DuPont) participate in the research and development activity with regard to pesticides, because only those enterprises have the capacity to do large scale research on all three fields of pesticides. Other competitors in this area have no or only very limited research and development capacities and therefore cannot trigger innovation activity on the market. However, innovation is essential to develop pesticides that are less nocuous, more effective or can help when vermin have developed resistances.
Dow and DuPont agreed on selling the worldwide herbicide and insecticide production of DuPont, the worldwide research and development capacities of DuPont and the exclusive license for a DuPont fungicide for rice crop for the European market.
Dow and DuPont are both in the acid copolymers business. Their merger would reduce the number of competitors in this business from four to three. Furthermore, DuPont has a dominant position in the ionomers business.
Dow sells both its production facilities in Spain and the United States. Furthermore, it terminates its contract with a ionomer provider from whom Dow received the ionomers it sold to its customers.
Dow and DuPont were able to clear initial concerns of the EU Commission about nematicides and seeds. These areas are therefore not affected by the merger decision.
Further mergers are planned in the agro-chemical sector. However, due to the “priority rule” the commission assesses every merger in the order of its notification according to the current market situation. It will be interesting to see, how later mergers will be affected by the Dow/DuPont decision.
By Martin Miernicki
Following the opinion of the Advocate General, the ECJ gave its opinion in Stichting Brein v. Wullems (C‑527/15) on 26 April 2017. The court had to deal with a multimedia player (“filmspeler”), a device which allowed end users to easily stream content from online sources. Pre-installed add-ons – freely available on the internet – to the “filmspeler” contained links which connected to third-party websites which in turn made available protected works without the right holders’ consent; the multimedia player was specifically marketed for this function and sold for profit.
Articles 2(a) and 3(1) of the so-called Copyright Directive reserve the exclusive rights to reproduction as well as communication to the public in respect of their works for authors. Article 5(1) exempts certain temporary acts of reproduction from the scope of the authors’ exclusive rights, subject to the “three-step test” contained in article 5(5). Stichting Brein v. Wullems marks a further important addition to the case law involving the construction of these provisions, especially in the online environment. Relevant prior judgements include Nils Svensson v. Retriever Sverige (C-466/12), C More Entertainment v. Linus Sandberg (C-279/13), BestWater International v. Michael Mebes (C-348/13), and GS Media v. Sanoma Media Netherlands (C-160/15) (on hyperlinks) as well as Infopaq Int’l v. Danske Dagblades Forening (C-5/08, “Infopaq I”), Football Association Premier League v. Media Protection Services (C-403/08 & C-429/08), Infopaq Int’l v. Danske Dagblades Forening (C-302/10, “Infopaq II”), and Public Relations Consultants Ass’n v. Newspaper Licensing Agency (C-360/13) (on temporary reproductions).
The questions referred
The questions referred to the ECJ by the national (Dutch) court related to the perspective of both commercial and end users. It asked, first, whether the sale of a multimedia player as described above constituted a communication to the public within the meaning of the Copyright Directive’s article 3(1); and, second, whether the streaming of unauthorized content by end users with the aid of such multimedia player was covered by article 5(1) and compatible with article 5(5) of the directive.
Selling the multimedia player constitutes a communication to the public
In reference to its prior case law, the court held that the defendant’s conduct constituted an “act of communication” (para 42), directed to a “public” (para 46). Moreover, it reaffirmed its concept of the “new public”. In line with its ruling in GS Media, the court attributed significant importance to the fact that the multimedia player was sold for profit and with the full knowledge that the links provided connected to works made available without the consent of the right holders (para 49 et seq).
Streaming by using the media player is not exempted from the scope of the reproduction right
The actual question was whether the acts at hand carried out by end users could be considered “lawful use” within the meaning of the Copyright Directive. In this respect, the court distinguished the present case from its prior decisions and ruled that the temporary reproductions made while streaming unauthorized content through the media player did not satisfy the conditions set forth by article 5(1). Again, the court emphasized that this function was the “main attraction” of the multimedia player (para 69). Finally, the court noted that the streaming would “adversely affect the normal exploitation” of the copyrighted content and thus conflict with the “three-step test” (para 70).
What does the judgement mean?
The first of part of the judgement is line with the prior case law. As pointed out by the Advocate General, exempting the sale of a media player like that at issue would be too “reductionist” (para 49). Indeed, there is no significant difference between posting a hyperlink on a website and integrating that link in a multimedia player (para 51). However, some questions concerning the court’s concept of the “new public” remain. It is not clear, for instance, under what circumstances a person “ought to know” that a hyperlink provides access to infringing content; it is even more difficult to define the scope of the “for profit” criterion. In both GS Media and the present case, the situation was rather clear; yet, demarcation problems might arise, especially, if the communication does not occur as a core part of the activities carried out for profit, but is of a rather complementary nature (e.g., a lawyer posting hyperlinks on his or her law firm’s blog). Nevertheless, it seems that the (subjective) approach taken by the court in both cases towards the communication to the public of protected works strikes a reasonable balance between the protection of right holders and the interests of internet users.
This also applies, in principle, to the ECJ’s ruling in respect of streaming by end users. In this context, it should be noted that the court merely gave its opinion on article 5(1). Other exemptions or limitations may apply for the benefit of consumers, especially the “private copying exemption” contained in article 5(2)(b) of the Copyright Directive (cf. para 70). Furthermore, as the GA noted, the question whether an end user knew (or should have known) that he or she was streaming illegal content can be taken into account when dealing with personal liability (para 71). Lastly, although the decision will clearly have strong implications for the streaming of copyrighted works in general, the ECJ limited its decision to the streaming of protected works via the “filmspeler”, so that the possibility of flexible approaches in future cases is not excluded.
CJEU: EU-Directive 2001/29/EC Does Not Permit National Legislation to Provide a Special Defense to Copyright Infringement for Retransmission of Television Broadcasts via the Internet
By Katharina Erler
The Fourth Camber of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ruled on 1 of March 2017 that Article 9 of EU InfoSoc Directive (2001/29/EC) does not cover national legislation, which provides a special defense to copyright infringement by retransmission of works broadcast on television channels by cable or via the internet. In particular, Article 9 must be interpreted as not permitting national legislation which allows the immediate retransmission of free-to-air broadcasts by cable and via the internet, if it is done within the area of the initial broadcast. The case is ITV Broadcasting Limited v. TVCatchup Limited, C-275/15.
The appellants in the main proceedings, commercial television broadcasters ITV, Channel 4 and Channel 5, own copyrights under national law in their televisions broadcasts and included films. TVCatchup (TVC) offered an internet television broadcasting service, permitting its users to receive streams of TV shows, including those transmitted by ITV, Channel 4, and 5.
It is important to note that the CJEU has dealt with this case before: In its judgement of 7 March 2013, ITV Broadcasting and Others (C-607/11), the CJEU held that the retransmission of protected works and broadcasts by means of an internet stream, such as the service of TVCatchup, constitutes a communication to the public under Article 3 of Directive 2001/29/EC (InfoSoc Directive) and therefore must be authorized by the authors concerned.
The High Court of Justice (England & Wales) followed this judgement and found that TVC had infringed the copyright of television broadcasters. It, however, found that TVCatchup could rely on a defense under Section 73 (2) (b) and (3) of the United Kingdom’s Copyright, Designs and Patent Act (CDPA).
The broadcasters filed an appeal against this High Court decision. The Court of Appeal (England & Wales) took the view that the national defense provisions in Section 73 (2) (b) and (3) must be interpreted in light of Article 9 of Directive 2001/29 and consequently referred a number of questions concerning the interpretation of Article 9 to the CJEU for a preliminary ruling.
Article 9 (“Continued application of other legal provisions”) of Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the harmonization of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society (InfoSoc Directive) states that the Directive shall be without prejudice to provisions concerning in particular […] access to cable of broadcasting services […].
Article 1 of the InfoSoc Directive (2001/29/EC) with regard to the scope of the Directive stipulates that this Directive shall leave intact and shall in no way affect existing Community provisions relating to […] (c) copyright and related rights applicable to broadcasting of programs by satellite and cable retransmission.
Section 73 (2) (b) and (3) of the United Kingdom’s Copyright, Designs and Patent Act (CDPA), which implemented Directive 2001/29/EC, that copyright is not infringed “if and to the extent that the broadcast is made for reception in the area in which it is re-transmitted by cable and forms part of a qualifying service”.
Consideration of the questions referred to the CJEU
Of five questions referred to the CJEU by the Court of Appeal, the CJEU explicitly only responded to one, which referred to the phrase “access to cable of broadcasting services” under Article 9 of Directive 2001/29/EC, and asked whether it applies to (1) national provisions which require cable networks to retransmit certain broadcasts or (2) national provisions which permit the retransmission by cable of broadcasts (a) where the retransmissions are simultaneous and limited to areas in which the broadcasts were made for reception and/or (b) where the retransmissions are of broadcasts on channels which are subject to certain public service obligations.
In essence, the CJEU answered the question whether Article 9 of Directive 2001/29/EC might be interpreted as permitting national legislation to provide a separate general defense to retransmission of broadcasting services via cable— including the internet—without the authors consent.
By emphasizing that the concept of “access to cable broadcasting services” must be given an autonomous and uniform interpretation throughout the European Union, the CJEU—in line with the opinion of the Advocate General from 8 September 2016—found that the term “access to cable” is different from that of “retransmission of cable” under Article 1 (c), because only the latter notion designates the transmission of audio-visual content. Therefore, taking into account the wording, Article concerns not the transmission of content and the public access to this content, but rather the access to a network.
Setting Article 9 in the context of the whole Directive, the CJEU clearly states that the exclusion of EU provisions on “cable retransmission” from the scope of Directive 2001/29/EC, in this instance, refers to EU Directive 93/83 concerning copyrights applicable to satellite broadcasting and cable retransmission. Since, however, the case at hand concerns the retransmission within one Member State, the provisions of Directive 93/83, which solely apply to cross-border retransmissions, are irrelevant.
Highlighting that the principal objective of the InfoSoc Directive (2001/29/EC) is to establish a high level of protection for authors, the CJEU referred to its earlier ruling from the previous referral by the UK High Court in the same case (ITV Broadcasting and Others, C-607/11). As ruled in that decision, the retransmission by means of an internet stream, such as the one at issue, constitutes a “communication to the public” under Article 3 (1) of Directive 2001/29/EC and, therefore, results in copyright infringement unless it falls within the scope of Article 5, which sets out an exhaustive list of exceptions and limitations to the right of communication to the public. In the view of the CJEU, it is common ground that the retransmission at issue does not fall within the scope of any of the exceptions and limitations set out in Article 5 of Directive 2001/29/EC.
Most importantly, the CJEU ruled – referring to the opinion of the Advocate General from 8 September 2016 – that Article 9 of Directive 2001/29/EC may not be interpreted to mean that it independently permits exceptions to the right of communication to the public in Article 3. The objective pursued by Article 9 is, indeed, to maintain the effect of provisions in areas other than the area harmonized in Directive 2001/29/EC. Keeping the general objective of the Directive, especially the high level protection of authors and the exhaustive nature of Article 5 in mind, the CJEU found that Article 9 may not be interpreted as covering retransmissions.
The Court noted furthermore, that the InfoSoc Directive contains no legal basis that would justify affording less protection to television channels subject to public service obligations.
As a result of the CJEU’s decision, the national exception to copyright under Section 73 of UK’s CDPA with regard to retransmissions shall be considered as not compatible with the EU legal framework. This decision seems to be consistent with the objective of the InfoSoc Directive, which is to set harmonized rules on copyrights and especially to ensure a high level of protection for the authors.
It is worth mentioning that the question of whether national rules can regulate retransmission and introduce exceptions of copyright was again raised in a case, decided by the CJEU shortly thereafter. On 16 March 2017, in AKM v. Zürsnet (C-138/16), the CJEU, in contrast to the earlier case ITV Broadcasting v. Others (C-607/11), found that the transmission of television and radio broadcasts by a cable network installation does not constitutes a communication to a new public under Article 3 of the InfoSoc Directive. In that Case, the CJEU held that due to the fact that the persons who receive the transmission of the protected works have been taken into account by the rightsholders when they granted the original authorization for the national broadcaster, the transmission does not infringe copyright under the InfoSoc Directive. The CJEU did not take into account its broad interpretation of “communication to the public” as referred to in its earlier decision ITV Broadcasting and Others (C-607/11). This decision, however, might cause confusion as to the requirements of “communication to the public” in Article 3 of the InfoSoc Directive and the question of whether national legislation may introduce exceptions of copyright for retransmissions of broadcasts.
By Maria E. Sturm
On 11 May 2017, the Advocate General Szpunar, issued his opinion on the case “Asociación Profesional Elite Taxi vs Uber Systems Spain SL” (C – 434/15) which gives some interesting insights in UBER’s business activity in Spain and the EU.
The role of the Advocate General
According to Art. 252 TFEU, eight Advocate-Generals assist the Court of Justice. They are impartial and independent. In cases which require their involvement according to the statute of the Court of Justice, they issue a reasoned submission. Their arguments prepare the Court’s decision. And while the Court is not bound, it still often follows them.
UBER and its completely new business model raise a lot of legal questions. Case C – 434/15 offers the ECJ the possibility, to answer a least a few of them for the European Union. As the case is a preliminary ruling according to Art. 267 TFEU, the ECJ can only answer the questions posed by the Commercial Court No 3 of Barcelona, Spain. Therefore, the advocate-general does not reason e.g. on antitrust or labor law issues.
The questions were (summarized):
- What kind of service does UBER offer: a transport service, an electronic intermediary service or an information society service as defined in Art. 1(2) of Directive 98/34?
- If it is an information society service, does it profit from the freedom of services according to Art. 56 TFEU and Directives 2006/123 and 2000/31?
- Does the Spanish Law on Unfair competition infringe the freedom of establishment?
- Are the requirements of authorization or license valid measures to regulate the freedom to provide electronic intermediary services?
First, the Advocate-General explains which kind of service UBER offers. This is important as the type of service affects the Member State’s competences to regulate it. Szpunar starts with the definition of the term “information society service” which requires three criteria: it must be provided for remuneration, upon individual request and by electronic means. While the first two do not pose any problems, the third one needs further clarification in this case. Of course, UBER as a smartphone application works electronically. However, the actual ride the customer receives, is not electronic. The service does not have to be completely electronic to fulfill the criterion of Art. 1(2) of Directive 98/34 but if it is a composite service, one needs to examine where the emphasis lies. Szpunar bases his argument on the unity of the electronic and the non-electronic part. If both can be offered independently, an information society service can be confirmed for the electronic part. As example, he mentions online platforms for booking hotels: the consumer can use the platform to compare prices and book the hotel. However, she could also book the hotel directly without using the platform. Thus, the electronic service of the platform and the analog product of the hotel room are independent and the service the platform offers is an information society service. With UBER, in contrary, no independent service exists. UBER only acts as intermediary for a service which itself creates. It is not a platform that just combines driving services offered by different companies, but the platform makes the service. Furthermore, according to Szpunar, UBER exercises decisive influence over the conditions under which the service is provided. It decides who can be a driver, how drivers must behave, and conducts quality control via its rating function. This means, it offers not mainly an electronic, but a transport service.
The result of Szpunar’s argument is:
- UBER is no information society service. Therefore, Art. 56 TFEU and Directives 2006/123 and 2000/31 are not applicable.
- Questions three and four of the Commercial Court No 3 of Barcelona do not need to be answered as they only refer to the freedoms of service and establishment which do not protect UBER.
- UBER offers a transport service according to Art. 90-100 TFEU. This means, it can be submitted to authorization or license requirements by the Member States as any other transport service, too.
Now we have to wait, if the ECJ follows Szpunar’s arguments which seems quite probable. However, the next question is: does the current legal framework – on the local, state and European level – fit to the sharing economy? The European Commission already addressed the problem in its 2015 communication “A Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe” where it announced a comprehensive assessment of the role of platforms, including the sharing economy. In 2016, the EU Commission issued a communication on the European agenda for the collaborative economy. This communication provides legal guidance to public authorities, market operators and citizens on how to apply existing EU law on legal problems emerging form the sharing economy. However, these guidelines are not binding and the Commission announces further investigation and legal action in this field.
Big Data: Italian Authorities Launch Inquiries on Competition, Consumer Protection and Data Privacy Issues
By Gabriele Accardo
On 30 May 2017, the Italian Competition Authority, the Italian Data Protection Authority and the Communications Authority opened a joint inquiry on “Big Data”.
The joint sector inquiry by the Italian Competition Authority, the Italian Data Protection Authority and the Communications Authority will focus, respectively, on potential competition and consumer protection concerns, data privacy, as well as on information pluralism within the digital ecosystem.
First, based on the assumption that the collection of information and its use through complex algorithms have a strategic role for firms, especially for those offering online platforms, which use the collected data to create new forms of value, the inquiry will thus assess whether, and under which circumstances, access to “Big Data” might constitute a barrier to entry, or in any case facilitate anticompetitive practices that could possibly hinder development and technological progress.
Secondly, the use of such large amounts of information may create specific risks for users’ privacy given that new technologies and new forms of data analysis in many cases allow companies to “re-identify” an individual through apparently anonymous data, and may even allow them to carry out new forms of discrimination, and, more generally, to possibly restrict freedom.
A further risk for the digital ecosystem is linked to how online news is now commonly accessed. In fact, digital intermediaries employ users’ information forms of profiling and the definition of algorithms, which in turn, are able to affect both the preservation of the net neutrality principle, and the plurality of the representations of facts and opinions.
It may be expected that while the inquiry will focus on certain specific businesses (typically platforms-related), the authorities may send requests for information to all businesses that collect and make significant use of customer/user data.
Relatedly, on 10 May 2016, French and German Competition Authorities published their joint report on competition law and Big Data. Separately, the French Competition Authority announced the launch of a full-blown sector inquiry into data-related markets and strategies.
In recent months, data-related issues have been at the core of specific investigations by the Italian Competition Authority (against Enel, A2A and ACEA for an alleged abuse of dominance, and against Samsung and WhatsApp for unfair commercial practices), and the Italian Data Protection Authority (against WhatsApp), showing that Italian authorities are getting ready for the challenges that the data-driven economy brings.
Enel, A2A, and ACEA, ongoing investigations on alleged abuse of dominance
On 11 May 2017, following a complaint by the association of energy wholesalers, the Italian competition Authority (“ICA”) raided the business premises of Enel, A2A and ACEA in order to ascertain whether the energy operators may have abused their dominant positions in the electricity market in order to induce their respective customers (private individuals and small businesses) to switch to their market-based electricity contracts.
In particular, according to the ICA, each energy operator may have used “privileged” commercial information (e.g., contact details and invoicing data) about customers eligible for regulated electricity tariffs (so-called Servizio di maggior tutela), which was held in the capacity as incumbent operator(s) (at national level for Enel, and in the Milan and Rome areas for A2A and ACEA, respectively), as well as its dedicated business infrastructure to sell its market-price electricity supply contracts to private individuals and small business customers.
Enel may have also misled consumers by stating that it would be able to guarantee a more secure energy supply than Green Network in order to win-back “former” customers, and thus induce them to choose its contracts.
The investigation is similar to the one recently concluded by the French Competition Authority against energy operator Engie, which resulted in a fine of Euro 100 Million.
Interestingly, both investigations in Italy and France raise issues similar to those addressed in September 2015 by the Belgian Competition Authority against the Belgian National Lottery. The Belgian Authority held that the Belgian National Lottery used personal data acquired as a public monopoly to the market its new product Scooore! on the adjacent sports betting market. The Belgian Competition Authority found that such conduct constituted an abuse of dominance insofar as the information used by the infringer could not be replicated by its competitors in a timely and cost-effective manner.
Samsung – unfair commercial practices
On 25 January 2017, the Italian Competition Authority (“ICA”) levied a 3.1 Million Euro fine on Samsung in relation to two unfair commercial practices related to the marketing of its products, one of which concerned the forced transfer of personal information for marketing purposes.
In essence, Samsung promoted the sale of its electronic products by promising prizes and bonuses (e.g. discounts, bonus on the electricity bill, and free subscription to a TV content provider) to consumers. However, contrary to what the advertising promised, consumers could not get the prize or bonus when buying the product, but could only receive it at a later stage, following a complex procedure that was not advertised, but was only made available in the Terms and Conditions and to consumers who registered on Samsung People online. Besides, consumers were repeatedly requested to provide documents over and over again.
The ICA also found the practice of making discounts conditional upon registering with the company’s digital platform and giving consent to the processing of their data unfair and aggressive, insofar as consumers could not get the promised prize or bonus without giving their consent to the commercial use of their personal data, which were used by Samsung for purposes unrelated with the promotional offer of the product itself. The ICA thus found that the data requested by Samsung were irrelevant and unrelated to the specific promotion in question.
WhatsApp – unfair commercial practices and privacy issues
This is yet another case concerning the forced transfer of personal information for marketing purposes, which followed the same lines of the Samsung case.
Preliminarily, the ICA held that data is a form of information asset, and that an economic value can be attached to it (e.g., Facebook would in fact be able to improve its advertising activity with more data). The ICA further found that a commercial relationship exists in all instances where a business offers a “free” service to consumers in order to acquire their data.
- users were not provided with adequate information on the possibility of denying consent to share with Facebook their personal data on WhatsApp account;
- the option to share the data was pre-selected (opt-in) so that, while users could in fact have chosen not to give their assent to the data sharing and still continue to use the service, such a possibility was not readily clear and in any event users should have removed the pre-selected choice;
During the investigation, WhatsApp offered a set of remedies, but this offer was rejected by the ICA, based on the fact that, as a result of the methods used by WhatsApp to obtain customers’ consent to transfer their data to Facebook, the practice could be characterized as overtly unfair and aggressive, and as such deserved a fine (in any case WhatsApp halted the practice of sharing data with Facebook in light of ongoing discussions with national data protection agencies in Europe).
Interestingly, while the ICA decision is based on consumer protection grounds, last year the German Federal Cartel (FCO) Bundeskartellamt launched an investigation into similar conducts by Facebook, WhatsApp’s mother company, based on competition law grounds. Specifcally, the investigation was based on suspicions that with its specific terms of service on the use of user data, Facebook may have abused its alleged dominant position in the market for social networks. In particular, the presence of excessive trading conditions is the underlying theory of harm for the investigation launched by the FCO. In particular, the FCO is assessing whether Facebook’s position allows it to impose contractual terms that would otherwise not be accepted by its users.
Yet, consumer, competition law, and privacy considerations appear entangled in such cases, as shown by the investigation that Italian Data Protection Authority launched against WhatsApp in parallel with the ICA.
It is understood that while the investigation is still ongoing, the Italian Data Protection Authority requested WhatsApp and Facebook to provide information in order to assess the case thoroughly. In particular, the two companies were asked detailed information on:
- data categories that WhatsApp would like to make available to Facebook;
- arrangements that are in place to obtain users’ consent to disclose their data;
- measures that have been taken to enable exercise of users’ rights under Italy’s privacy legislation, since the notice given to users on their devices would appear to only allow withdrawing consent and objecting to data disclosure for a limited period.
In addition, the Italian Data Protection Authority is seeking to clarify whether the data of WhatsApp users that do not use Facebook will be also disclosed to that company, insofar as no reference to marketing purposes was in the information notice provided initially to WhatsApp users.
Businesses are moving fast to figure out how to best harness the wealth of consumer’s data and make good commercial use of it. Authorities around the globe are putting together their toolkits to address emerging issues in the data-driven economy.
In this cops and robbers game, it appears clear that businesses are struggling to understand which set of rules may apply to their business models, either because there are multiple laws that could potentially apply or because the rules are indeed not readily foreseeable or clear. Obviously, if the same conduct can be caught from many angles, then there is something wrong that need to be addressed, if that can stifle innovation.
That said, the message for businesses sent by these mushrooming initiatives in Europe and around the world is clear: consumers’ freedom to choose whether or not to allow their data to be transferred to parties intending to use this information in order to generate a profit from it should be and will be protected. Enforcers will tackle conduct that unduly influences consumers’ ability to take informed and free decisions.
By Maria Sturm
On 6 May 2015, the European Commission issued a communication with the title “A Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe” to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. This digital single market strategy is comprised of three main pillars:
- Better access to online goods and services for consumers and businesses across Europe.
- Creating the right conditions for digital networks and services to flourish.
- Maximizing the growth potential of the European Digital Economy.
The second pillar includes the goal of creating new possibilities to process communication data and to reinforce trust and security in the Digital Single Market. Therefore, in January 2017, the EU Commission issued a proposal for a “Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the respect for private life and the protection of personal data in electronic communications and repealing Directive 2002/58/EC (Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications)”. A study was conducted on behalf of the EU Commission to evaluate and review Directive 2002/58/EC. The most important findings of the study were:
- The Member States transposed the directive in very different ways. This uneven transposition led to legal uncertainty and an uneven playing field for operators.
- This fragmented implementation leads to higher costs for businesses operating cross-border in the EU.
- New means of communication (e.g. WhatsApp) are not covered by the directive. This means that EU citizens enjoy a different level of protection, depending on which communications tools they use.
Based on these findings, the new proposal seeks to keep up with the pace of the fast developing IT-services. The data business is an important economic actor, which creates a lot of workplaces. This sector needs to be able to use data and make it available. But on the other hand, consumer protection and privacy, as emphasized in Art. 7 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU, are important in establishing and maintaining trust in the digital single market. Thus, the proposal aims to strike the right balance between the expectations of businesses and the expectations of consumers, and to establish a framework for more security on both sides.
The focal points of the proposal are:
- The directive will be replaced by a regulation to create an even playing field for operators across the EU. While a directive needs to be transposed by each single Member State, the regulation becomes immediately enforceable.
- The proposal covers new means of communication, such as instant messaging or VoIP telephony, the so-called “Over-the-Top communications services”. It therefore guarantees the same level of confidentiality no matter whether a citizen of the EU uses a new communication system or makes a “traditional” phone call.
- New business development opportunities can emerge, because once consent is given, communication data can be used to a greater extent.
- Cookie-rules, which today are cumbersome and result in an overload of consent requests, will be streamlined and made more user-friendly.
- Spam protection will be increased.
- Enforcement will be delegated to national data protection authorities, which are already responsible under the General Data Protection Regulation. This makes enforcement more effective.
The proposal attacks directly the problems and issues detected by the study on Directive 2002/58/EC and aligns the ePrivacy legislation with the General Data Protection Regulation of April 27, 2016 (see also TTLF Newsletter of February 3, 2017). There may be further changes made to the proposal during the rest of the discussion. It remains to be seen exactly what those developments will entail. However, it is a given that the current legislation on privacy and electronic communication is fragmentary and needs to adapt to new electronic evolutions and needs.
 European Commission, Press Release IP-17-16.
 Voice over Internet Protocol.
By Martin Miernicki
On 10 February 2017, Italy ratified the Agreement on a Unified Patent Court. Already, the UK had announced their commitment to continuing the ratification process of the agreement, despite the ongoing “Brexit”-discussion.
The unitary patent – an overview
The legal basis for the unitary patent is the so-called “patent package” adopted between 2012 and 2013. It consists of three main instruments:
- Regulation (EU) No 1257/2012 creating a unitary patent (Unitary Patent Regulation)
- Council Regulation (EU) No 1260/2012 on translation arrangements (Unitary Patent Translation Regulation)
- Agreement on a Unified Patent Court (UPC Agreement)
The patent package is the result of an enhanced cooperation (art. 326 et seq. TFEU) between, originally, 25 EU member states. Italy joined in 2015, leaving Spain and Croatia as the only member states not participating in the enhanced cooperation. The adoption of the patent package was accompanied by several disputes, especially regarding translation arrangements.
The unitary patent (European patent with unitary effect) supplements the options for the international protection of patents like the protection systems under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) or the European Patent Convention (EPC). The unitary patent is designed as a European patent issued by the European Patent Office (EPO) under the EPC. A European patent granted with the same set of claims in respect of all the participating member states can, upon request of the patent owner, benefit from the unitary effect under the Unitary Patent Regulation. In this case, the patent provides uniform protection and has equal effect in the participating member states (art. 3 of the Unitary Patent Regulation). Translations – in addition to those required under the EPC procedure – may be necessary if a dispute arises relating to the infringement of a unitary patent and during a transitional period (article 4, 6 of the Unitary Patent Translation Regulation). The Unified Patent Court (UPC) has jurisdiction for the unitary patents according to the UPC Agreement.
Entry into force
The Unitary Patent Regulation’s entry into force is linked to the UPC Agreement (art. 18). The same applies to the Unitary Patent Translation Regulation (art. 7). The UPC Agreement will enter into force upon the ratification of thirteen member states, including France, Germany, and the UK (as the countries with the highest number of European patents). As of March 2017, 12 signatory states, including France, have ratified the agreement.
What can be expected?
The British announcement to continue preparing for ratification was somewhat surprising given the current circumstances involving Brexit. It remains to be seen how the UK government will proceed, especially in light of the upcoming negotiations between the EU and the UK on their future relationship. The announcement alludes to this point, saying, “[t]he decision to proceed with ratification should not be seen as pre-empting the UK’s objectives or position in the forthcoming negotiations with the EU.” Furthermore, British minister Jo Johnson presented a favorable explanatory memorandum on the UPC to the British Parliament earlier this year. In turn, Italy’s ratification highlights that the preparation for the unitary patent is ongoing, and shows that the patent package could indeed enter into force sooner than later. Meanwhile, the UPC Preparatory Committee is working towards the phase of provisional application, which it expects to start in spring 2017.
 Spain unsuccessfully asked the ECJ to annul the Unitary Patent Regulation, see Spain v. European Parliament, C‑146/13 (2015).