Update on EU Copyright Reform – Audiovisual Media Services and Copyright in the Digital Single Market
By Martin Miernicki
Two important legislative projects in the field of European copyright law have recently undergone substantial developments. The revision of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) is likely to be adopted later this year, whereas the proposed Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (CDSMD) will be subject to an extended debate in the European Parliament.
In 2015, the Commission adopted its Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe, calling for a better harmonization of the copyright laws of the EU member states as well as for an enhanced access to online goods and services. Against this background, the proposal for a revision of the AVMSD as well as the proposal for the new CDSMD were made in 2016. The amendment to the AVMSD pursues a variety of policy goals, aiming at creating a clear level playing field for the provision of audiovisual content in the EU, especially addressing online services. The CDSMD contains provisions on the (collective) licensing of certain works and exceptions and limitation to rights of right holders provided for in other European directives on copyright, among these Directive 2001/29/EC. Title IV’s Art 11 and 13 of the proposed directive appear to be most controversial, providing for a right of publishers of press publications in the digital use of their press publications (so-called “link tax”) and an increased obligation of certain platform operators to monitor the content uploaded to their sites (so-called “upload filter”). Both reform projects have been intensely discussed and have yet to be adopted.
Current state of the reform projects
On 26 April 2018, the Commission announced a breakthrough in the negotiations with the Council and the European Parliament about the revision of the AVMSD, stating that a “preliminary political agreement” had been reached. This agreement was subsequently confirmed in June 2018. As regards the CDSMD, the Council’s permanent representatives committee agreed to its position on the draft directive on 25 May 2018 for the negotiations with the European Parliament. On 20 June 2018, the Parliament’s Legal Affairs Committee voted to start the negotiations, upholding controversial parts of the proposed CDSMD. However, the European Parliament rejected this decision in early July.
What can be expected?
Against the background of these developments, the revised AVMSD is likely to be adopted in autumn or winter, starting the period for the transposition of its rules into national law. It should be noted that Brexit also affects audiovisual media services, and it caused the Commission to publish a notice to stakeholders on this matter earlier this year. The future development of the CDSMD is less clear, as the proposal might be amended as a result of the upcoming debate. At this point, it is expected that the European Parliament will discuss the issue in September.
By Pratyush Nath Upreti
On 23 March 2018, the United States launched a WTO complaint against China’s discriminatory licence practices. The request for consultations filed by the United States highlights the grounds for complaint as:
“China denies foreign patent holders the ability to enforce their patent rights against a Chinese joint-venture party after a technology transfer contract ends. China also imposes mandatory adverse contract terms that discriminate against and are less favorable or imported foreign technology. Therefore, China deprives foreign intellectual property rights holders of the ability to protect their intellectual property rights in China as well as freely negotiate market-based terms in licensing and other technology-related contracts.”
Later in April 2018, Ukraine, Saudi Arabia, Chinese Taipei (Taiwan), and the European Union (EU), formally requested to join the consultations requested by the US, citing a substantial interest in the matters related to the protection of intellectual property rights by WTO members, interpretation of TRIPS Agreement and trade interest.
On 1 June 2018, the European Union filed its own WTO complaint against China’s rules, which are applicable to technology transfer. According to the request for consultations, the European Union has accused China of using its domestic legislation to impose a different set of rules on the import of technology, including intellectual property rights, than the rules which are applicable to technology transfers occurring between Chinese companies. Further, in the consultations request, the EU argues;
“The Chinese measures at issue appear to (i) discriminate against foreign holders of intellectual property rights, and (ii) restrict the foreign right holders’ ability to protect certain intellectual property rights in China, contrary to China’s WTO obligations.”
The WTO consultations give the parties an opportunity to discuss the issues and to find a satisfactory solution without resorting to litigation. In case of failure to produce a satisfactory solution within 60 days, the complainant may request for adjudication by a panel.
In recent years, there have been few IP disputes brought to the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU). From 1995-2016, the TRIPS Agreement has been invoked only 33 times in WTO complaints- (20 cases in 1995-99: 5 cases in 2000-04; 1 case in 2005-09; 7 cases in 2010-14; 0 cases in 2015-16). In the past, the US and the EU had a history of IP related tension at WTO with China. However, the recent request for consultations by two key global actors has come at a time when the rise of bilateral and plurilateral trade agreements is at its peak. Thus, these requests for consultations depict their faith in the multilateral system.
 China-Certain Measures Concerning the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights- Request for Consultations by the United States (WT/DS542/1, 26 March 2018)
<https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news18_e/ds542rfc_26mar18_e.htm> accessed 22 July 2018.
 See communication from the Ukraine, Saudi Arabia, Chinese Taipei (Taiwan), and the European Union (EU) to join consultations requested by the United States.
 China-Certain Measures on the Transfer of Technology – Request for Consultations by the European Union ( WT/DS549/1, 6 June 2018)
 For more information on WTO Dispute Settlement
< https://www.wto.org/english/tatop_e/dispu_e/disp_settlement_cbt_e/c6s2p1_e.htm> accessed 22 July 2018.
 Kara Leitner and Simon Lester, ‘WTO Dispute Settlement 1995-2016- A Statistical Analysis’ (2017) 20(1) Journal of International Economic Law 176. (Based on the statistical data, authors argue that with regards to intellectual property, the number of complaints has been limited and has been a decline in recent years.)
 See China- Measures Affecting the Protection and Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights (WT/DS362) < https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/cases_e/ds362_e.htm> accessed 22 July 2018/
By Nicole Daniel
On 22 March 2018, in a court hearing in the Qualcomm case, Judge Koh expressed her concern over possible abuses in asserting legal privilege over certain documents.
In January 2017, the U.S. FTC sued Qualcomm, alleging that the company consistently refused to license its essential patents to competitors, thereby violating its pledge to standards organizations that it would license them on FRAND terms (fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory). Allegedly, Qualcomm also engaged in a policy of withholding processors unless its customers agreed to patent licensing terms favorable to Qualcomm. A trial is set for January 2019.
Furthermore, a class action alleged that Qualcomm’s behavior raised the prices of devices operating with its chips.
At the hearing, judge Koh said she is “deeply disturbed” by the very high percentage of privilege assertions by Qualcomm. However, Qualcomm continues to produce documents after reviewing them again and removing earlier assertions of privilege. Judge Koh expressed her concerns at the court hearing several times and said that she will allow witnesses to be redeposed, as often as necessary, until all documents are available before testimony.
This issue centers around documents from Apple and other customers which were gathered under an EU investigation into the baseband chipsets market. Even though the plaintiffs have already obtained a redacted version of the Commission’s January 2017 decision fining Qualcomm EUR 997 million, they ask for an unredacted version. In this decision, Qualcomm was fined for paying Apple to refrain from buying rival manufacturers’ chips.
The U.S. plaintiffs argue that Qualcomm should have simply asked for third parties’ permission to share the information given to the EU investigators. Qualcomm in turn argued that it cannot circumvent EU law by making the disclosures asked for and referred to the version of the decision to be published by the Commission. In the public version, the Commission makes its own redactions. The U.S. plaintiffs further argued that they contacted Apple, as well as its contracted manufacturers, and those parties do not object to disclosure. Qualcomm replied that they could simply ask them directly for the information. In sum, the U.S. plaintiffs called Qualcomm’s behavior unfair, as it prevents them from fully understanding the EU decision.
Until early May 2018, no public version of the Commission was available. The Commission and the companies involved are still in the process of deciding on a version of the decision that does not contain any business secrets or other confidential information.
By Giuseppe Colangelo
The online sales phenomenon – and all the issues deriving from vertical restraints – has attracted significant attention in recent years in several EU Member States. This attention arises mainly from a question regarding the extent to which restrictions limiting the ability of retailers to sell via online marketplaces are compatible with competition rules.
The findings of the recent E-commerce Sector Inquiry [COM (2017) 229 final] indicate that absolute marketplace bans should not be considered to be hardcore restrictions within the meaning of Article 4(b) and Article 4(c) of the Vertical Block Exemption Regulation (330/2010). However, as recalled by the Commission, this approach has been affirmed pending the CJEU’s decision in the Coty Prestige case. Indeed, the Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt am Main essentially asked the EU Court of Justice (CJEU) whether a ban on using third party platforms in a selective distribution agreement is compatible with Article 101(1) TFEU and whether such a restriction constitutes a restriction of competition by object.
No wonder Coty was so anticipated. The judgment is expected to shape the future of EU e-commerce affecting online markets, the luxury industry and Internet platforms.
The request for a preliminary ruling has been submitted in the context of a dispute between a supplier of luxury cosmetics (Coty Germany) and its authorized distributor (Parfümerie Akzente), concerning the prohibition, under the selective distribution agreement, of the use of third-party undertakings for Internet sales. In particular, Parfümerie Akzente distributes Coty goods both at its brick-and-mortar locations and over the Internet. In the latter case, sales are carried out partly through its own online store and partly via the Amazon platform.
According to Coty, the selective distribution system is required in order to support the luxury image of its brands. In this respect, the selective distribution agreement, as it pertains to Internet sales, provides that the authorized retailer is not permitted to use a different name or to engage a third-party undertaking which has not been authorized. The dispute at issue arose when Parfümerie Akzente refused to sign amendments regarding Internet sales activity. They prohibited the use of a different business name and the recognizable engagement of a third-party undertaking which is not an authorized retailer of Coty Prestige. Thus, according to these amendments, the authorized retailer is prohibited from collaborating with third parties if such collaboration is directed at the operation of the website and is affected in a manner that is discernible to the public.
In response to the action brought by Coty to prohibit Parfümerie Akzente from distributing products via Amazon, the German court of first instance found that, in accordance with Pierre Fabre ruling (C-439/09), the objective of maintaining a prestigious image of the mark could not justify the introduction of a selective distribution system which restricts competition. Further, according to the national court, the contractual clause at issue constituted a hardcore restriction under Article 4(c) of the Regulation. It did not meet the conditions for an individual exemption, since it has not been shown that the general exclusion of Internet sales via third-party platforms entails efficiency gains that offset the disadvantages for competition that result from the clause. Moreover, the court considered such a general prohibition unnecessary, since there were other equally appropriate but less restrictive means, such as the application of specific quality criteria for the third-party platforms.
In these circumstances, the Oberlandesgericht Frankfurt am Main requests a preliminary ruling asking: (i) whether selective distribution networks aimed at preserving the image of luxury goods are caught by the prohibition laid down in Article 101(1) TFEU; (ii) whether, in the same context, Article 101(1) precludes a contractual clause which prohibits authorized distributors from using, in a discernible manner, third-party platforms for Internet sales, without consideration of whether there is any actual breach of the legitimate requirements of the manufacturer in terms of quality; (iii and iv) whether Article 4(b) and (c) of the Regulation must be interpreted as meaning that such a third-party platform ban constitutes a restriction by object of the retailer’s customer group or of passive sales to end users.
The questions reflect the diverging interpretations of Pierre Fabre by the national competition authorities and courts. Thus, the case provides the CJEU with the opportunity to clarify the meaning of Pierre Fabre.
Sidestepping Pierre Fabre
By answering the first question, the CJEU recalls that since Metro (C-26/76 and C-75/84), the Court has recognized the legality of selective distribution networks based on qualitative criteria. Notably, according to the conditions set by the case law to ensure the compatibility of a selective distribution network with Article 101(1) TFEU, resellers must be chosen on the basis of objective criteria of a qualitative nature, which are determined uniformly for all potential resellers and applied in a non-discriminatory manner; the characteristics of the product necessitate such a selective distribution network in order to preserve its quality and ensure its proper use; the criteria defined must not go beyond what is necessary.
In the context of luxury goods, it follows from the case law that, due to their characteristics and their nature, those goods may require the implementation of a selective distribution system in order to preserve their quality and to ensure that they are used properly. Indeed, as highlighted by the Copad judgment (C-59/08), the quality of luxury goods is not just the result of their material characteristics, but also of their allure and prestige. As prestige goods are high-end goods, the aura of luxury they emanate is essential in that it enables consumers to distinguish them from similar goods and, therefore, an impairment to that aura is likely to affect the actual quality of those goods. For these reasons, the characteristics and conditions of a selective distribution system may preserve the quality and ensure the proper use of luxury goods. The CJEU in Copad held that the establishment of a selective distribution system which seeks to ensure that the goods are displayed in sales outlets in a manner that enhances their value contributes to the reputation of the goods, and therefore contributes to sustaining the aura of luxury surrounding them.
Therefore, once the Metro criteria are met, a selective distribution system designed primarily to preserve the luxury image of those goods is compatible with Article 101(1) TFEU. This outcome is not challenged by Pierre Fabre. The assertion contained in paragraph 46 of that case (“The aim of maintaining a prestigious image is not a legitimate aim for restricting competition and cannot therefore justify a finding that a contractual clause pursuing such an aim does not fall within Article 101(1) TFEU”) is confined to the context of that judgment and consequently does not alter the settled case law. Notably, that assertion is related solely to the goods at issue (“the goods covered by the selective distribution system at issue in that case were not luxury goods, but cosmetic and body hygiene goods”) and to the contractual clause in question in Pierre Fabre (a general and absolute ban on Internet sales). Therefore, the selective distribution system in its entirety was not at issue.
The same line of reasoning guides the CJEU’s answer to the second question, which is related to the lawfulness of a specific clause prohibiting authorized retailers from using, in a discernible manner, third-party platforms for Internet sales of luxury products.
The contractual clause must be evaluated in light of the Metro criteria. The CJEU recalls that it indisputable that the clause at issue: i) pursues the objective of preserving the image of luxury and prestige of the contractual goods; ii) is objective and uniform; iii) is applied without discrimination to all authorized retailers. Therefore, the lawfulness of the third-party platforms prohibition is a matter of proportionality. Hence, an assessment is required as to whether such a prohibition is appropriate for preserving the luxury image of the contractual goods and whether it goes beyond what is necessary to achieve that objective.
As regards the appropriateness of the prohibition at issue, the CJEU considers the contractual clause justified by the need to preserve the luxury image of the products in light of three arguments. Indeed, the third-party platforms ban is coherent with the aim of: i) guaranteeing that the contract goods will be exclusively associated with authorized distributors; ii) monitoring the qualitative criteria according to which the products are sold (the absence of a contractual relationship between the supplier and third-party platforms prevents the former from being able to require compliance with the quality conditions imposed on the authorized retailers); iii) contributing to the high-end image among consumers (those platforms constitute a sales channel for goods of all kinds, while the chief value of a luxury good lies in the fact that it is not too common).
With regard to the question of whether the prohibition goes beyond what is necessary to achieve the objective pursued, the clause at issue is clearly distinguished from the one sanctioned in Pierre Fabre, since it does not contain an absolute prohibition on online sales. Indeed, authorized retailers are allowed to distribute the contract goods online via their own websites and third-party platforms, when the use of such platforms is not discernible to consumers.
The CJEU also relies on this argument to answer the third and fourth questions raised by the referring court. Even if the clause at issue restricts a specific kind of Internet sale, it does not amount to a restriction within the meaning of Article 4(b) and (c) of the Regulation, since it does not preclude all online sales, but only one of a number of ways of reaching customers via the Internet. Indeed, the contractual clause even allows, under certain conditions, authorized retailers to advertise on third-party platforms and to use online search engines. Moreover, it is not possible ex ante to identify a customer group or a particular market to which users of third-party platforms would correspond. Therefore, the content of the clause does not have the effect of partitioning territories or of limiting access to certain customers.
In summary, in line with the position expressed by the Commission in the Sector Inquiry, the CJEU states that absolute marketplace bans should not be considered as hardcore restrictions since, contrary to the restriction at stake in Pierre Fabre, they do not amount to prohibition on selling online and do not restrict the effective use of the Internet as a sales channel.
Some open issues
Despite the clarity of the CJEU’s findings, there is a matter of interpretation related to the potential limitation of the judgment solely to genuine luxury products. Indeed, the CJEU also distinguishes Coty from Pierre Fabre on the grounds that the latter did not concern a luxury product: “the goods covered by the selective distribution system at issue in [Pierre Fabre] were not luxury goods, but cosmetic and body hygiene goods. … The assertion in paragraph 46 of that judgment related, therefore, solely to the goods at issue in the case that gave rise to that judgment and to the contractual clause in question in that case”.
In that respect, the wording of the CJEU is unfortunate. First, the proposed exclusion of cosmetic and body hygiene products from the luxury landscape is far from convincing. Further, the uncertainty about the scope of the ruling may generate litigation over the prestige of some goods, since national enforcers may adopt different approach and manufacturers would seek protection against online marketplace sales for products whose luxury features are questionable. Indeed, the CJEU does not define the notion of luxury, but relies on Copad, stating that the quality of such goods is not just the result of their material characteristics, but also of the allure and prestigious image which bestow on them an aura of luxury. That aura is essential in that it enables consumers to distinguish them from similar goods.
A few days after the Coty judgement, the German Federal Court of Justice, in evaluating ASICS’s online restrictions, stated that sports and running shoes are not luxury goods. Previously, on 4 October 2017 the District Court of Amsterdam, referring to the Opinion of Advocate General Wahl in Coty, reached a different conclusion about Nike shoes and ruled in favor of Nike in an action against a distributor (Action Sport), which had not complied with the selective distribution policy.
A narrow interpretation of the Coty judgement would be at odds with the settled case law, which holds that it is the specific characteristics or properties of the products concerned that may be capable of rendering a selective distribution system compatible with Article 101(1) TFEU. As pointed out by the Advocate General, the CJEU has already made clear that irrespective even of whether the products concerned are luxury products, a selective distribution system may be necessary in order to preserve the quality of the product. In the same vein, according to the Commission’s Guidelines, qualitative and quantitative selective distribution is exempted regardless of both the nature of the product concerned and the nature of the selection criteria as long as the characteristics of the product necessitate selective distribution or require the applied criteria. It is the properties of the products concerned, whether they lie in the physical characteristics of the products (such as high-quality products or technologically advanced products) or in their luxury or prestige image, that must be preserved.
However, the mentioned ambiguity does not seem to have a significant impact in practice. Indeed, whether or not an online marketplace ban should be considered as hardcore restrictions within the meaning of Article 4(b) and (c) of the Regulation does not depend on the nature of products. Since, according to the CJEU’s finding, absolute marketplace bans are not hardcore restrictions, a case-by-case analysis of effects will be required for both luxury and non-luxury goods.
 Coty Germany GmbH v. Parfümerie Akzente GmbH (C-230/16).
 Case KVZ 41/17.
 Case C/13/615474 / HA ZA 16-959.
By Nicole Daniel
On 13 March 2018 Teva appeared at a closed-doors antitrust hearing in Brussels to contest EU pay-for-delay charges (COMP/39.686).
In April 2011 the European Commission opened an investigation against Teva and Cephalon, both pharmaceutical companies, for a 2005 pay-for-delay agreement. This investigation was a consequence of the 2009 sector inquiry of the pharmaceutical sector which had resulted in an EU policy of penalizing pay-for-delay settlements. This sector inquiry identified structural issues and companies’ practices that led to competition distortions. The Commission also recommend a stronger enforcement of patent settlements. Accordingly, these settlements are now monitored by the Commission on an annual basis.
Furthermore, this is the fourth pay-for-delay antitrust case opened after the sector inquiry. In Lundbeck (COMP/39.226), Servier (COMP/39.612) and Johnson & Johnson (COMP/39.685), the respective pharmaceutical companies were fined by the Commission. On 8 September 2016 the General Court upheld the Lundbeck Commission decision, thereby confirming the Commission’s finding that pay-for-delay agreements are a restriction by object, i.e. treating such an arrangement as infringement regardless of whether it has an anticompetitive effect. In the Servier case, the appeal to the General Court is still pending. The Johnson & Johnson case was not appealed.
The Teva case regards modafinil, a sleep-disorder drug. The patents for modafinil and its manufacture were owned by Cephalon but after certain patents expired, Teva entered the market with its generic version for a few months. A lawsuit for alleged patent infringement followed and the litigation in the UK and the U.S. was settled with a world-wide pay-for-delay agreement. In 2005 Teva received $ 125 million to delay the sale of generic modafinil. The agreement saw Teva taking modafinil off the market until October 2012. In the meantime, Cephalon became a subsidiary of Teva.
In the U.S. the same deal was also investigated by the authorities; this probe, however; was concluded with a $ 1.2 billion settlement.
On 17 July 2018 Teva received a Statement of Objections from the Commission. At that time Teva commented that it “strongly disagreed” with the Commission’s approach to patent settlements in the pharmaceutical industry. The Commission’s view is that substantial harm to health service budgets and EU patients may have been caused by the agreement, since it led to higher prices for modafinil.
It is possible for companies to respond in writing and in person to a Statement of Objections. On 13 March 2018 Teva therefore attended a closed-doors hearing in Brussels to respond to the allegations above.
It should be noted that since Teva had already started marketing its generic version of modafinil, this aspect could be an important element in deciding whether the market suffered due to that agreement. In other pay-for-delay cases, the pharmaceutical companies often argued that there was no anticompetitive intent or effect since no generic version, i.e. a rival product, had launched. However, this line of defense might not be applicable here.
It remains to be seen how the Commission will respond to Teva’s arguments.
Full-work Licensing Requirement 100 Percent Rejected: Second Circuit Rules in Favor of Fractional Licensing
By Martin Miernicki
On 19 December 2017, the Second Circuit handed down a summary order on the BMI Consent Decree in the dispute between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI). The court ruled that the decree does not oblige BMI to license the works in its repertoire on a “full-work” basis.
ASCAP and BMI are the two largest U.S. collective management organizations (CMOs) which license performance rights in musical works. Both organizations are subject to so-called consent decrees which entered into force 2001 and 1994, respectively. In 2014, the DOJ’s Antitrust Division announced a review of the consent decrees to evaluate if these needed to be updated. The DOJ concluded the review in August 2016, issuing a closing statement. The DOJ declared that it did not intend to re-negotiate and to amend the decrees, but rather stated that it interpreted these decrees as requiring ASCAP and BMI to license their works on a “full-work” or “100 percent” basis. Under this rule, the CMOs may only offer licenses that cover all performance rights in a composition; thus, co-owned works to which they only represent a “fractional” interest cannot be licensed. In reaction to this decision, BMI asked the “rate court” to give its opinion on this matter. In September 2016, Judge Stanton ruled against the full-work licensing requirement, stating that the decree “neither bars fractional licensing nor requires full-work licensing.”
Decision of the court
On appeal, the Second Circuit affirmed Judge Stanton’s ruling and held that fractional licensing is compatible with the BMI Consent Decree. First, referencing the U.S. Copyright Act – 17 U.S.C. § 201(d) –, the court highlighted that the right of public performance can be subdivided and owned separately. Second, as fractional licensing was common practice at the time the decree was amended in 1994, its language does indicate a prohibition of this practice. Third, the court rejected the DOJ’s reference to Pandora Media, Inc. v. ASCAP, 785 F. 3d 73 (2d Cir. 2015) because this judgment dealt with the “partial” withdrawal of rights from the CMO’s repertoire and not with the licensing policies in respect of users. Finally, the Second Circuit considered it to be irrelevant that full-work licensing could potentially advance the procompetitive objectives of the BMI Consent Decree; rather, the DOJ has the option to amend the decree or sue BMI in a separate proceeding based on the Sherman Act.
Implications of the judgement
The ruling of the Second Circuit is undoubtedly a victory for BMI, but also for ASCAP, as it must be assumed that ASCAP’s decree – which is very similar to BMI’s decree – can be interpreted in a similar fashion. Unsurprisingly, both CMOs welcomed the decision. The DOJ’s reaction remains to be seen, however. From the current perspective, an amendment of the decrees appears to be more likely than a lengthy antitrust proceeding under the Sherman Act; the DOJ had already partly toned down its strict reading of the decree in the course of the proceeding before the Second Circuit. Yet, legislative efforts might produce results and influence the further developments before a final decision is made. A recent example for the efforts to update the legal framework for music licensing is the “Music Modernization Act” which aims at amending §§ 114 and 115 of the U.S. Copyright Act.
By Gabriel M. Lentner
On 13 December 2017, an international investment tribunal delivered its decision on expedited objections, accepting jurisdiction to hear the trademark dispute in the case of Bridgestone v Panama. The dispute arose out of a judgment of the Panamanian Supreme Court of 28 May 2014, in which it held the claimants liable to a competitor to pay US $5 million, together with attorney’s fees, due to the claimants’ opposition proceedings regarding the registration of a trademark (”Riverstone”). The claimants argued that the Supreme Court’s judgment weakened and thus decreased the value of their trademarks (“Bridgestone” and ”Firestone”). The tribunal rejected most of the expedited objections raised by Panama. The decision is particularly interesting because it is the first detailed exploration of the question whether and under what conditions a trademark and license can be considered covered investments.
Trademarks are investments
On this issue, the tribunal first followed the text of the definition of investment under the applicable investment chapter of the United States—Panama Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA) (Article 10.29 TPA). It held that the investment must be an asset capable of being owned or controlled. The TPA also included a list with the forms that an investment may take, including ”intellectual property rights”, as many BITs do (paras 164 and 166). However, the TPA also requires that an investment must have the ”characteristics” of an investment, giving the examples of commitment of capital or other resources; expectation of gain or profit; assumption of risk (para 164). The tribunal also noted that other characteristics, as those identified in the case of Salini v Morocco, are to be found, such as a reasonable duration of the investment and a contribution made by the investment to the host state’s development. In this respect, the tribunal held that “there is no inflexible requirement for the presence of all these characteristics, but that an investment will normally evidence most of them” (para 165).
In deciding this issue, the tribunal reviewed the way in which trademarks can be promoted in the host state’s market. The tribunal found that ”the promotion involves the commitment of resources over a significant period, the expectation of profit and the assumption of the risk that the particular features of the product may not prove sufficiently attractive to enable it to win or maintain market share in the face of competition.” (para 169) However, the tribunal noted that “the mere registration of a trademark in a country manifestly does not amount to, or have the characteristics of, an investment in that country” (para 171). According to the tribunal, this is because of the negative effect of a registration of a trademark. It merely prevents competitors from using it on their products and does not confer benefit on the country where the registration takes place. Nor does it create any expectation of profit for the owner of the trademark (para 171).
The exploitation of a trademark is key for its characterization as an investment (para 172). This exploitation accords to the trademark the characteristics of an investment, by virtue of the activities to which the trademark is central. It involves a “devotion of resources, both to the production of the articles sold bearing the trademark, and to the promotion and support of those sales. It is likely also to involve after-sales servicing and guarantees. This exploitation will also be beneficial to the development of the home State. The activities involved in promoting and supporting sales will benefit the host economy, as will taxation levied on sales. Furthermore, it will normally be beneficial for products that incorporate the features that consumers find desirable to be available to consumers in the host country.” (para 172)
Licenses are investments, too
Another way of exploiting a trademark is licensing it, i.e. granting the licensee the right to exploit the trademark for its own benefit (para 173). The tribunal then brushes aside the following counter-argument raised by Panama:
“Rights, activities, commitments of capital and resources, expectations of gain and profit, assumption of risk, and duration do not add up an ‘investment’ when they are simply the rights, activities, commitments, expectations, and risks associated with, and the duration of, cross-border sales.” (para 175)
The tribunal responded that Panama did not provide any authority for this argument and only rebuts that the “reason why a simple sale does not constitute an investment is that it lacks most of the characteristics of an investment.” (para 176 It further noted that ”[i]t does not follow that an interrelated series of activities, built round the asset of a registered trademark, that do have the characteristics of an investment does not qualify as such simply because the object of the exercise is the promotion and sale of marked goods.” (para 176).
The problem with this argument is that it is precisely the point raised by Panama that the legal requirement for characteristics of investments were developed to distinguish an investment from a mere cross-border sale of goods. Arguably, the tribunal did not explain how the characteristics related to the trademarks at issue differ from those related to the marketing of ordinary sales of goods.
Against this background, the finding of the tribunal that trademark licenses are also investments is even less convincing. Here the tribunal refers to the express wording of Article 10.29(g) of the TPA, which provides that a license will not have the characteristics of an investment unless it creates rights protected under domestic law of the host state (para 178). After reviewing the arguments and expert testimony presented during the proceedings, the tribunal concluded that the license to use a trademark constitutes an intellectual property right under domestic law (para 195), and is thus capable of constituting an investment when exploited (para 198). It reasoned that ”[t]he owner of the trademark has to use the trademark to keep it alive, but use by the licensee counts as use by the owner. The licensee cannot take proceedings to enforce the trademark without the participation of the owner, but can join with the owner in enforcement proceedings. The right is a right to use the Panamanian registered trademark in Panama” (para 195).
In conclusion, it will be interesting to see how future tribunals will deal with this question and react to the precedent set in this case.